Arctic Temperature Alarm

Air temperature in the Arctic was -19.25°C on 2023-03-23. This is 0.15°C higher than 90th percentile of climatology period... READ MORE

Arctic Temperature Alarm

Air temperature in the Arctic was -19.28°C on 2023-03-22. This is 0.27°C higher than 90th percentile of climatology period... READ MORE

It’s now or never – IPCC 6th Assessment Report released today

Today the final synthesis of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s 6th Assessment Report cycle was released. This synthesis report restates that it is "now or never" to act, and that we are well on... READ MORE

Arctic sea ice maximum extent likely 5th lowest on record

Arctic sea ice has likely reached its maximum extent for the year, at 14.62 million square kilometres (5.64 million square miles) on March 6, according to scientists at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at... READ MORE

Record-breaking cyclone brings further decimation to world’s #1 climate vulnerable country

Tropical cyclone Freddy is set to make more international records--including possibly one for the longest-lasting storm, later this... READ MORE


CO2 Budget Depletion

How does the Arctic effect

Climate Vulnerability
Pacific Regions?

Despite the distance between Oceania and the Arctic, sea level rise from the melt of Greenland are felt globally. Highly susceptible to tropical storms, the Pacific region is also affected by the same warming that drives Greenlandic and sea ice melt that increases the potency of storms 

Averaging enough seasonal melt to fill 400,000 Olympic-sized swimming pools (Resource Watch, 2019), Greenland contains an estimated 7.4m of potential water level rise. 27cm of rise is already irreversibly committed due to the destabilisation of the ice sheet (Box et al., 2022).

This potential for Greenlandic melt is one of the direct effects of the warming Arctic, which is four times faster than the rest of the world (Rantananen et al., 2022).

Normally, a snow- and ice-covered Arctic would reflect most of the incoming solar radiation back to space, thereby helping to regulate global temperature.

However, as the ice melts, more heat is absorbed and the more the planet warms. Sea level rise, however, is not the only effect of this warming felt in the Pacific. 

In recent years, one of the other main concerns in the Pacific relates to storms. The same warming that drives Greenlandic and sea ice melt also enables the atmosphere to hold more moisture.

This added moisture increases the potency of storms  (IPCC AR6 WG1, 2021). In addition to greater wind speeds, these stronger storms bring increased precipitation, higher storm surges and greater flooding. 

The Pacific islands are united in their reliance upon the marine biome for food and sustenance. However, rising seas and warming temperatures are two factors that change the local waters, which can exacerbate food insecurity and economic struggles. Secondary factors like this have impacted the region’s preparedness and ability to recover from disasters.

Socio-economic impacts of climate change have a negative impact on people’s livelihoods and wider economies. Read more on our Socio Economic Impacts page

Regional STORIES

As one of the costliest climate hazards for Pacific Island nations, tropical cyclones bring devastating impacts on assets, infrastructure and lives.

In 2020, Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasa affected approximately 100,000 people across Vanuatu, Fiji and Tonga, causing damage of over US$246.7 million (Echo Flash, 2020). I

n 2016, Severe Tropical Cyclone Winston, the strongest tropical cyclone that year, impacted roughly 350,000 people and took 44 lives across Vanuatu, Fiji, and Tonga, and led to damages worth approximately US$1.4 billion (Reliefweb, 2016; ADB, 2017).

Composed of 33 atolls with an average elevation of 1.8 metres above sea level, Kiribati is expected to be one of the first countries to become uninhabitable due to sea level rise by 2050.

At a 0.9 metre rise in sea level, approximately 66% of Kiribati’s land could be lost (Phelan, 2022). Two of the atolls have already been permanently inundated and more are nearing a state of uninhabitability (Iberdrola, n.d.).

While this plan was later revoked due to contradicting projections of the threat of sea level rise and changes in leadership, in 2014, Kiribati’s government acquired over 2.200 hectares of land in Fiji with the intent of ensuring both food security and a place for roughly 70% of the Kiribati population to relocate (Ellesmoor and Rosen, 2016). Now, the purchased land is planned for use to provide Kiribati with nutritious food. \

Despite increases over the years, the average resident of Kiribati still only emits 0.47 tons of carbon dioxide every year (Our World in Data, n.d.-a). In comparing that to 4.47 tons, the global average per capita (Statista, n.d.), or the average US resident’s 15.5 tons (Our World in Data, n.d.-b), we are painting a picture of indisputable climate injustice.

Due to the Pacific islands’ low elevation and loss of outer islands, many countries are increasingly susceptible to storm surges and saltwater intrusion (World Bank, 2019).

This is putting their water security at risk (UNICEF, 2022a).

In June 2022, the Government of Kiribati declared a State of Disaster due to prolonged drought conditions as 79% of the archipelagic nation’s population was impacted (UNICEF, 2022b).

Rising sea levels threatens the very existence of the Marshall Islands, as the swallowing of the islands risks changing its status under international law from a habitable state to an uninhabitable bit of land (Leb ,2021).

Global sea levels have risen more than 20 centimetres since the start of the 20th century, with 2.8 to 3.6 millimetres coming in just the past thirty years (NASA, 2022). However, the rise in the Marshall Islands has been advancing at twice the rate (Australian Government, 2013). With king tides happening more frequently, “Waves regularly wash over the protective barriers that line the shore. Streets are getting flooded more frequently. Drinking water gets polluted. Livelihoods are destroyed. [Climate Envoy for the Marshall Islands Ministry of Environment] Jetn̄il-Kijiner says the threat of a flood is always looming in people’s minds” (Kottasová and Doran, 2022)

With 1 metre of sea level rise, 96% of the city will be at risk for frequent flooding and 40% of buildings may be destroyed. As such, the country is exploring new options, including elevating regions and building entirely new islands.  According to Kathy Jetn̄il-Kijiner, “[It’s] completely unfair. We shouldn’t have to do that. These are extreme measures that will cost us billions of dollars, all because of something we had contributed nothing to.”


The following gauges show up-to-date data regarding key indicators in the Arctic. These indicators clearly point to the crisis at hand.

Greenland rate of ice loss
4.5 hundred thousands l/s
on average in 1986-2015
4.5 tons per second
on average in 1986-2015
Worldwide number of disasters
265 disasters
more events in 2022 in comparison to 1970s
183 disasters
more events in 2022 in comparison to 1980s
100 disasters
more events in 2022 in comparison to 1990s
Arctic Sea Ice Extent
1,060,750 km²
below 1981-2010 average on 26-Mar-2023
409,555 mi²
below 1981-2010 average on 26-Mar-2023
Arctic Amplification
2.81 times
faster than global average in last 30 years
2.59 times
faster than global average in last 50 years
2.49 times
faster than global average in last 70 years
Arctic Wildfire emissions
0.19 megatonnes CO₂e
CO₂e emissions in 2023 so far
Arctic Air Quality (PM2.5)
2.72 microgram per cubic meter
on 21-Mar-2023